In this blog, I want to explain the Pandas function that is helpful to find interesting information from data. I used the ICC T20 World Cup 2021 data shown https://www.kaggle.com/affanazhar/icct20-worldcup2021 .
1. Loading and Assessing Basic Information From Data:
Start with importing the Pandas library:
import pandas as pd
To load the data from the Comma Separated Value (csv file), we use pd.read_csv() function.
data = pd.read_csv(r'C:\Users\Mairaj-PC\Desktop\worldt20_data.csv') data.head()
To get some basic information from the data, we use dataframe.info() method
# check the description of data in detail data.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'> RangeIndex: 33 entries, 0 to 32 Data columns (total 24 columns): # Column Non-Null Count Dtype --- ------ -------------- ----- 0 Unnamed: 0 33 non-null object 1 team_1 33 non-null object 2 team_2 33 non-null object 3 stage 33 non-null object 4 Winner_toss 33 non-null object 5 Toss_descision 33 non-null object 6 time 33 non-null object 7 venue 33 non-null object 8 avg_temperature 33 non-null int64 9 best_bowler 33 non-null object 10 bowling_arm 33 non-null object 11 bowling_style 33 non-null object 12 most_individual_wickets 33 non-null int64 13 economy 33 non-null float64 14 best_bowler_country 33 non-null object 15 best_batter 33 non-null object 16 batting_hand 33 non-null object 17 high_indvidual_scores 33 non-null int64 18 strike_rate 33 non-null float64 19 best_batter_team 33 non-null object 20 target 33 non-null int64 21 target_achieved 33 non-null int64 22 Player_of_the_match 33 non-null object 23 Winner 33 non-null object dtypes: float64(2), int64(5), object(17) memory usage: 6.3+ KB
The info function defines as the data have 32 rows and 24 columns. There are no null values in the data.
We also see a basic statistical description of data by using a dataframe.describe() function. This function shows us the statistical summary of all quantitative variables in the data.
# check the basic statistical summary of data data.describe()
The described function shows us mean, standard deviation and many more. We get a many of information from this function like the mean temperature during the World Cup is 29.27 degrees Celcius and the highest individual score is 101.
2. Sorting, Counting and Applying a Condition to Data:
For sorting data either in ascending or descending order, we use dataframe.sort_values() function. By using this function, we find the top three highest targets during the World Cup.
# sort the data from highest to lowest target of each match data.sort_values('target', ascending = False).head(3)
The output shows us the top three targets set by India, Afghanistan and Pakistan of 211, 191 and 190 respectively.
Sort values function also apply with multiple columns shown below:
# sorting with multiple columns (lowest by target and highest by temperature) data.sort_values(['target', 'avg_temperature'], ascending = [True, False]).head(3)
The smallest target during the World Cup is 56 in Dubai with a hot temperature of 33 degrees Celcius.
We also examine our data by applying conditions by using and, or and not operators. An example of this operator is shown below:
# find the player those have 50 plus individual scores and target not achieved data[(data['high_indvidual_scores'] > 50) & (data['target_achieved'] == 0)].head()
For explaining the information from categorical data to get counts of categorical variables. We use 'dataframe.value_counts()' method.
The T20 World Cup 2021 is in the United Arab Emirates. There are three venues Dubai, Sharjah and Abu Dhabi. We check that how many matches are played in each venue?
# find the count of matches in each venue data['venue'].value_counts()
Dubai 13 Abu_Dhabi 11 Sharjah 9 Name: venue, dtype: int64
The output shows that Dubai Stadium covers more matches than the other two.
Take another example to see which country won the most matches in this World cup.
# find the most number of wins by each country most_wins = data['Winner'].value_counts() most_wins.head(4)
Australia 6 New_Zealand 5 Pakistan 5 SouthAfrica 4 Name: Winner, dtype: int64
Output is similar to expectation, Australia won the most matches therfore they are champion of this World Cup.
3. Group Summary Statistics From Data :
To make data split into separate groups to perform computations for better analysis. We use dataframe.groupby() function. We understand this concept with several examples.
First, we find the mean temperature in each venue of the World Cup. We use groupby() function as follows:
# average temperatue in each venue data.groupby('venue')['avg_temperature'].mean()
venue Abu_Dhabi 28.363636 Dubai 29.769231 Sharjah 29.666667 Name: avg_temperature, dtype: float64
The output shows us that Dubai has a slightly hotter temperature as compared to others.
We also apply groupby() function in multiple columns.
# find the summary statistics of strike rate and target for each winning country data.groupby('Winner')[['strike_rate', 'target']].agg([min, max])
Let's take another example to find out the most economical bowling spell of the World Cup.
# find the most economical bowler data.groupby('best_bowler')['economy'].mean().sort_values().head(3)
best_bowler Adil_Rashid 0.90 Hamid_Hassan 2.25 Anrich_Nortje 2.40 Name: economy, dtype: float64
Adil Rashid from England bowled the most economical spell of bowling with an average economy of 0.91 per over.
4. Indexing and Slicing:
We also slice and index data with any columns as per our requirement. We use two functions to apply the indexing. These are:
dataframe.loc : gets rows (and/or columns) with particular labels.
dataframe.iloc: gets rows (and/or columns) at integer locations.
Let's learn with examples, we want to find the tosses won by Pakistan team. We find by setting the index column to the 'Winner_toss" column by using dataframe.set_index() command.
# make the index set to winner toss to see which have more toss win new_data = data.set_index('Winner_toss') new_data.head(3)
Now find the tosses won by Pakistan team by using dataframe.loc method.
# subset the new data with few columns selective_new_data = new_data[['team_2', 'stage']] # print result of Pakistan print(selective_new_data.loc['Pakistan'])
team_2 stage Winner_toss Pakistan India Group_stage Pakistan New_Zealand Group_stage Pakistan Namibia Group_stage Pakistan ScotLand Group_stage
The output said that Pakistan won the 4 tosses, all in the group stage matches.
Let's look at the rows of matches 15 to 18 with dataframe.iloc method .
# we also use indexing by number using .iloc # See the match 15 to 18 data.iloc[14:18,:5]
5. Plotting with Pandas:
Visualization is an important part of our analysis. Let's visualize the findings.
Make a bar plot to see the number of matches won by each team.
# Create a vraible most_wins that show number of matches won by every team # lets see result with bar plot most_wins.plot(kind = 'bar')
The output shows the winning matches details of 10 countries out of 12 participating countries because 2 countries Bangladesh and Scotland did not win a single match in the World Cup.
Let's find the relation between strike rate and targets chased. The chance is the highest target chased with a high strike rate so both have an increasing relationship. Let us check by using a scatter plot.
# lets find a relation with strike rate and target set in those game when target is chased target_chased = data[data['target_achieved'] == 1] # for this, we use scatter plot target_chased.plot(x = 'target', y = 'strike_rate', kind = 'scatter')
The output does not show any strong increased relationship because small targets also chased with high strike rates.
Pandas functions are very helpful to find insight from the data. They help us to get a better understanding of our data with a versatile approach. By the use of Pandas techniques in our analysis, we find the following information from our data:
India set the highest target of 211 against Afghanistan.
The smallest target of the World Cup is 56.
The individual highest score by a batsman is 101.
Dubai Stadium covers the most matches i.e 13 with hottest average temperature as compared to the other two venues.
Australia won the most matches i.e 6.
Adil Rashid from England bowled the most economical spell of the World Cup i.e 0.91 per over.
Bangladesh and Scotland did not win a single match in the World Cup.
I hope this blog is helpful for you to learn some Pandas functions. The GitHub repository of this blog is https://github.com/MuhammadMairajSaleem92/Python-Pandas-Techniques/blob/main/Pandas%20Techniques.ipynb